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Minerals (or Raw Materials) Used In Construction

Building Stones (or Dimension Stones)
Exterior facing and trim, and for interior paneling, steps, and decorative purposes.  Most widely used rocks are sedimentary limestone and sandstone, the igneous rock granite, the metamorphic rocks marble and slate (and sometimes gneiss).

Crushed Rock, Sand  and Gravel
The primary use of crushed rock is as an aggregate for concrete and as a base for streets and roads.  Sand and gravel are usually taken directly from stream beds, glacial out wash, beaches.  3-4 billion tonnes/yr (~20 billion $)

Cement is a mix of minerals that when water is added it becomes hard and strong.  It is usually made from a mixture of limestone and clay or shale, or from an impure limestone with a high clay content.  The raw materials go through a multi-step process to meet certain specifications before entering the market as a binder.

Clay can be molded into a desired form and heated to produce bricks, porcelains, tiles, ceramic pipes, etc.


It is used mainly for a wall-surface material, most commonly found in pre-fabricated sheets.  Gypsum is the primary raw material.

Glass has many uses.  Quartz is the main mineral content.  The supply is plentiful - sandstone or unconsolidated sand deposits.

It is used as an electrical and thermal insulator.   It is also very resistant to corrosion.  It is used in brake linings and fire resistant suits.  The main source of mineral is chrysotile.  Some forms of asbestos have been linked to lung cancer.


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