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A sealant is a viscous material that changes state to become solid, once applied, and is used to prevent the penetration of air, gas, noise, dust, fire, smoke or liquid from one location through a barrier into another. Typically, sealants are used to close small openings that are difficult to shut with other materials, such as concrete, drywall, etc. Desirable properties of sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion. Uses of sealants vary widely and sealants are used in many industries, e.g., construction automotive and aerospace industries. An example of a sealant is silicone.

Types of Sealants

  • Acryl Sealants
  • Polysulfide Sealants
  • Polyurethane Sealants
  • Silicone Sealants
  • WKT Sealants
  • Firestop

Acryl Sealants
In organic chemistry, , the acryl group is the functional group with structure H2C=CH-C(=O)-; it is the acyl group derived from acrylic acid. Compounds containing an acryl group can be referred to as "acrylic compounds".

An acrylic compound is typically an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound: it contains a carbon-carbon double bond and a carbon-oxygen double bond, separated by a carbon single bond.

Polysulfide Sealants

Polysulfides are a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms. In their simplest form, polysulfides are anions with the general formula Sn2− and the structure −SSn-2S−. These anions are the conjugate bases of the hypothetical acids H2Sn.

Polyurethane Sealants
A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. Polyurethane polymers are formed by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two alcohol groups in the presence of a catalyst. Polyurethane formulations cover an extremely wide range of stiffness, hardness, and densities. These materials include low density flexible foam used in upholstery and bedding, low density rigid foam used for thermal insulation, soft solid elastomers used for gel pads and print rollers, and hard solid plastics used as electronic instrument bezels and structural parts. Polyurethanes are widely used in high resiliency flexible foam seating, rigid foam insulation panels, microcellular foam seals and gaskets, durable elastomeric wheels and tires, electrical potting compounds, high performance adhesives and sealants, Spandex fibers, seals, gaskets, carpet underlay, and hard plastic parts. Polyurethane products are often called "urethanes". They should not be confused with the specific substance urethane, also known as ethyl carbamate. Polyurethanes are not produced from ethyl carbamate, nor do they contain it.

Silicone Sealants
Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are mixed inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. These materials consist of an inorganic silicon-oxygen backbone (…-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-…) with organic side groups attached to the silicon atoms, which are four-coordinate. In some cases organic side groups can be used to link two or more of these -Si-O- backbones together. By varying the -Si-O- chain lengths, side groups, and crosslinking, silicones can be synthesized with a wide variety of properties and compositions. They can vary in consistency from liquid to gel to rubber to hard plastic. The most common siloxane is linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a silicone oil. The second largest group of silicone materials is based on silicone resins, which are formed by branched and cage-like oligosiloxanes.

WKT Sealants

WKT is sealing compound which was developed by Paul Pietzschke, Chemisch-Technische Fabrik, Hamburg, Germany in 1962 specifically to meet the stringent requirements in the yacht and ship building industry. WKT belongs to the group of sealants

WKT is a highly elastic and extremely non-ageing sealant Unlike silicone sealing compounds, WKT is a synthetic rubber and one of the first fully synthetic sealants for the commercial marine industry. Today WKT is used in countless fields of applications such as the construction and building industry, windows and glazing, interior industry, plant engineering and construction, grommet maintenance, manufacturing industry, recreational vehicles (RV) and aircraft industries.

A firestop is a passive fire protection system of various components used to seal openings in fire-resistance rated wall and/or floor assemblies through bounding, which is based on elaborate fire testing as well as environmental testing, in some cases.

Unprotected or unbounded openings in fire separations void the fire-resistance ratings of the fire separations that contain them and thus, both in practical and legal terms, collapse the fire compartments of which these fire separations form a part, which affects the fire safety plan of the entire building. Firestops are specifically designed to restore the fire-resistance ratings of rated wall and/or floor assemblies by bounding the openings through approved firestops.

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